Coronaviruses have a grave economic impact on the poultry industry, thus the researchers evaluated whether spraying the formulation could impact transmission of the Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) to chickens. Treatment of the air in the coop protected chickens for up to 4 days post-treatment from clinical signs of disease and decreased transmission of IBV over a 14-day period.
A major addition to the pre-clinical data was made with application of the formulation to surgical mask material. Masks impregnated with the product were highly effective in blocking the passage of live H3N2 virus (99.9% effective). 2007. It was demonstrated that the formulation had significant in vitro activity against the H3N2 virus at concentrations that were not associated with significant cellular toxic effects.
Continued studies in ferrets as a surrogate for human viral transmission showed promise. The formulation prevented transmission and provided prophylaxis against influenza virus H3N2. Prophylaxis with this formulation was significantly more than with oseltamivir (the active ingredient in Tamiflu) in these experiments.
The formulation continued to show pre-clinical results whereby intranasal application demonstrated efficacy in significantly reducing the severity of illness in ferrets infected with the Influenza A virus. The study determined that the formulation significantly reduced the systemic illness as measured by weight and temperature. The study also demonstrated that this product was more effective than a leading prescription drug in reducing fever and therefore the severity of illness.
In separate studies, the formulation showed significant viricidal activity against the Urbani strain of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus.
Based on the available literature on various herbs with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, the formula started as a successful treatment for sore throat. The research team speculated that the formulation would also have antiviral activity and designed studies to evaluate.
In in vitro tests, the formulation was effective in inhibiting or exterminating influenza viruses and human rhinoviruses.
Cummings TS, Guralnik M, Rosenbloom RA, Petteruti MP, Digian K, Lefante C. In vivo safety and tolerability study of QR-441(a) using three dose formulations and three routes of administration in chickens. Am J Ther. 2007;14(5):469-74. Epub 2007/09/25. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0b013e3180a720cd. PubMed PMID: 17890937.
Guralnik M, Rosenbloom RA, Petteruti MP, Lefante C. Limitations of current prophylaxis against influenza virus infection. Am J Ther. 2007;14(5):449-54. Epub 2007/09/25. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0b013e3180a5e7d6. PubMed PMID: 17890934.
Oxford JS, Lambkin R, Guralnik M, Rosenbloom RA, Petteruti MP, Digian K, LeFante C. In vivo prophylactic activity of QR-435 against H3N2 influenza virus infection. Am J Ther. 2007;14(5):462-8. Epub 2007/09/25. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0b013e3180a7206e. PubMed PMID: 17890936.
Oxford JS, Lambkin R, Guralnik M, Rosenbloom RA, Petteruti MP, Digian K, Lefante C. Preclinical in vitro activity of QR-435 against influenza A virus as a virucide and in paper masks for prevention of viral transmission. Am J Ther. 2007;14(5):455-61. Epub 2007/09/25. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0b013e3180a6f9c2. PubMed PMID: 17890935.
Jackwood MW, Rosenbloom R, Petteruti M, Hilt DA, McCall AW, Williams SM. Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus susceptibility to botanical oleoresins and essential oils in vitro and in vivo. Virus Res. 2010;149(1):86-94. Epub 2010/01/26. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2010.01.006. PubMed PMID: 20096315.
Lau TF, Leung, P.C., Wong, E.L.Y., Fong,C., Cheng, K.F., Zhang, S.C., Lam, C.W.K., Wong, V., Choy, K.M., Ko, W.M. Using Herbal Medicine as a Means of Prevention Experience During the SARS Crisis. J Chin Med. 2005;33(3):345-56.
Lau JT, Leung PC, Wong EL, Fong C, Cheng KF, Zhang SC, Lam CW, Wong V, Choy KM, Ko WM. The use of an herbal formula by hospital care workers during the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in Hong Kong to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission, relieve influenza-related symptoms, and improve quality of life: a prospective cohort study. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11(1):49-55. Epub 2005/03/08. doi: 10.1089/acm.2005.11.49. PubMed PMID: 15750363.